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CONTRIBUTIONS / BEITRÄGE

Arne Haselbach (1981)

Bruno Kreisky's Drive for a Large-Scale Economic Solidarity Programme with Developing Countries [1]

Introductory Note: In my capacity as Director of the Vienna Institute for Development, founded and chaired by Bruno Kreisky, I have come across a number of widely varying interpretations of Bruno Kreisky's initiative. This paper aims at remedying that situation by making known what Kreisky has actually said in public on the issues under consideration. It has been put together using quotations from his speeches delivered between 1958 and 1980.

The responsibility for the selection of quotations and for putting them in context is entirely my own.

Arne Haselbach

CONTENT

0. In place of an Introduction
A. A Constant Drive
B. A Working Politician's Approach
1. A blend of idealism and realism
2. Importance of North-South cooperation
3. Need for an active role of the North
4. First and foremost a political task
5. Need for a realistic economic basis for action
6. A political initiative not a detailed blue-print
7. Needed: A 'Grand Design'
8. North and South must work out solutions together
9. Living up to one's responsibility
C. Kreisky's References to the Marshall Plan
1. Lessons to be learned
a) only major international assistance programme
b) an outstanding technical device: Counterpart funds
c) Multilateral concerted action essential
d) Drawing rights
e) Marshall Plan initiated integration among the recipients
2. Modifications necessary
D. On the Importance of Infrastructure
E. Constant Search for positive-sum-game scenarios
a) The 'Dollar Overhang'
b) Oil price increases and surpluses of investible liquidity
c) Underutilized productive capacities


IN PLACE OF AN INTRODUCTION

"modern industrialized states possess a staggering economic potential [...] one can easily envisage a considerably higher share [...] being allotted for purposes of development aid [...]"

"one of the first and foremost tasks [...] must be that [...] the industrialized countries [...] establish as promptly as possible a realistic global program of purposeful and co-ordinated action [...]"

"Such a program would then be discussed with the other states concerned. As a result of these discussions with our partners, the industrialized countries would be in a position to come up with a plan which could mean to the developing countries as much as the Marshall Plan meant to European states." (Dallas Address, 18 October 1965)

"Facts and experiences of the last 15 years have shown that the methods applied hitherto did not suffice. In view of the magnitude of the problems development assistance seems to have had - by and large - homeopathic character." (Conference of Acción Democratica, Caracas, 23 May 1976)

"To me the answer to the question of how to overcome the economic crisis is to be found in a political solution. It can only consist of a large-scale international action in which the industrialized world - being immensely rich - is prepared to help build the infrastructures of the Third World on a continental scale in a planned way in order to give employment to the people of these countries, to create opportunities to develop their resources, by assisting them to increase their agricultural output through enlarging irrigation facilities, by developing their transport systems, by enabling them to use their energy reserves." (Vienna, 19 May 1978)

"This can be neither an act of pure charity nor one of strictly commercial profit-oriented nature but an undertaking of political reason and, therefore, an eminently political act." (International Rescue Committee, Freedom Award, 14 April 1975)

A. - CONSTANT DRIVE

For those less familiar with Austria's recent history:

Bruno Kreisky has been in the Austrian Government from 1953 to date [2] (with the exception of the period between 1966 and 1970, when the Socialist Party of Austria was in opposition). In 1953 he became Secretary of State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and in 1959 Minister of Foreign Affairs, a position he held until 1966. During the time in opposition he was elected Chairman of the Socialist Party of Austria in 1967. After leading his party to an electoral success in early 1970 he formed his first government and has been Federal Chancellor (Head of Government) of Austria ever since.

A historical overview

Bruno Kreisky has been among those who have been trying for the last 30 years to grasp the complexity of the issues relating to development and North South cooperation and who have constantly been searching for possible solutions.

The historic antecedents of Kreisky's initiative go back to the time of the Marshall Plan itself.

"When I became Secretary of State, I put the view forward in Paris in the then newly created institutions - the first beginnings of European integration - that when we would once have surmounted our difficulties thanks to the Marshall Plan, we will also care for those who are in need of a bigger Marshall Plan." (Austrian Parliament, 2 December 1970)

or, as he related it later,

"as I referred to it in 1950 and again and again [...] if Europe was to be set on its feet economically by [...] the Marshall Plan, if it was to regain the economic strength that it had once possessed and perhaps become even stronger, then the industrialized countries of Europe, which had thus been reconstructed, should make up their minds to carry out a similar programme for the Third World countries." (UN Symposium, Vienna, 7 March 1978)

Europe did regain its economic strength and has become much, much richer.

(On 15 May 1955 Austria regained its national independence with the signing of the Austrian State Treaty; on 26 October 1955 Austrian Parliament adopted the Law on the Permanent Neutrality of Austria; and on 14 December 1955 Austria joined the United Nations.)

In 1958, Bruno Kreisky, speaking at the Congress of the Socialist Party of Austria, which was devoted to the adoption of a new party programme, the first new programme after the Second World War,

"we are opposing the exploitation of man by man, similarly we must oppose the exploitation of peoples by other peoples [...] but today this is no longer enough [...] we have to assist the peoples fighting for their independence to develop their economies, to increase their standard of living [...]"

"this demonstrates the new great task for the second half of this century [...] We have experienced a grandiose act of international solidarity in the form of the Marshall Plan and I want to state that we will soon have to be prepared for an even bigger act of grandiose international solidarity" (Party Congress, Vienna, 14 May 1958)

Immediately after the proclamation of the (First) Development Decade by the United Nations in December 1961 Kreisky convened the "Conference on Economic Cooperation and Partnership" (1 - 7 July 1962, Salzburg and Vienna) which led to the creation of the Vienna Institute for Development, of which he has since been President.

In 1964 Kreisky was deeply involved on the Austrian side in the preparation of UNCTAD. He was deeply dissatisfied with the role the industrialized countries had played in that context.

Consequently, Bruno Kreisky suggested in his Dallas speech on "Foreign Policy in the Affluent Society" on 18 October 1965 and time and again thereafter

"that [...] the industrialized countries [...] establish [...] a realistic global program of [...]. action which could mean to the developing countries as much as the Marshall Plan meant to European states."

and

"that the time has come to take action to put these ideas into effect." (Dallas Address, 18 October 1965)

(After 20 years of coalition governments in Austria the coalition broke in 1966 and the Socialist Party went into opposition until 1970. In 1967 Kreisky was elected Chairman of the Party. This period was largely devoted to party work and to preparing the 1970 national elections.)

In the Declaration on Government Policy (of his first majority government) on the opening of the new session of Parliament in 1971 he stated that

"It is conceivable that in a period of decline in utilization of economic capacities, normal and traditional methods of deficit spending policy may be insufficient for stimulation of the economy, the more so as certain industries will be influenced by such methods - if at all - only in an indirect manner. In such a situation new opportunities for development assistance might arise.

"Since this phenomenon will probably be applicable to most European industrialized nations alike, it might be worthwhile to consider preparation of a concept as an initiative of the Government of Austria which, based on the experiences of the Marshall Plan, makes available to developing countries so-called drawing rights within the framework of an overall European plan - initially within the framework of OECD - which would permit developing countries to cover their requirements of essential commodities, notably capital goods, in those countries which take part in such a plan. The obligation to extend know-how would, of course, be part of it.

"We believe that in times of extreme prosperity little room will exist for such considerations. However, in periods, in which idle capacities exist, such considerations gain substantial economic importance. Thus, development assistance might very well be economically motivated as one among the anti-recessional policy instruments." (Regierungserklärung, 5 November 1971)

Soon thereafter Austria submitted proposals to OECD and the World Bank.

In the preparations for the 'Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe' (CSCE), in which Austria was actively involved, Kreisky suggested

"another problem that could be included in the agenda of a serious discussion at highest level is the question of Europe's readiness to undertake commitments to the Fourth World. The conference could thus lay down certain principles and adopt recommendations of major significance." (UNGA, New York, 11 November 1974)

At the summit meeting of the 'Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe' in Helsinki he said

"Finally, I take up a subject for co-operation to which I attach particular importance.

"The assistance which the industrial countries in 1974 gave to 130 countries is estimated at about 38 billion US dollars. Considerable though that sum is, it evidently is not enough to give the development assistance which would be required.

"Here the industrialized States must be prepared to make far greater efforts, must make it their goal to set up infrastructures in the developing countries to preserve the people of those countries from starvation and misery. I know that my own country is not yet fulfilling the commitment as it should, but I am convinced that we could all fulfil these commitments if they were part of a great continental concerted operation. Only thus shall we be able economically to strengthen the developing countries and raise them to the level where it will be possible for them to enter into a real partnership with the industrialized world, setting up a system of economic interdependence, a sure pledge of peaceful development. I am speaking of a European plan for co-operation with the other continents." (CSCE, Helsinki, 31 July 1975)

This was followed by new initiatives in the IMF/IBRD Development Committee and in OECD and many others in the following years.

In the 1979 Declaration on Government Policy Kreisky stated

"Austria considers development assistance policy an instrument of international cooperation. In this she is guided by the principles of partnership and solidarity, whose objectives consist in lessening existing dependencies without creating new ones, in reducing differences in social and economic levels and in promoting the self-determination of developing countries and of their people.

"Austria will continue to work for a comprehensive international programme, which would assist the developing countries in the rapid development of their infrastructure." (Regierungserklärung, Wien, 19 June 1979)

Together with the President of Mexico, Mr. Lopez Portillo, Kreisky accepted in 1980 to co-chair the Summit Meeting proposed by the Independent Commission on International Development Issues due to be held in Mexico in 1981.

Kreisky has never stopped to pursue his initiative and continued to make use of all opportunities to press the issue. Most of these efforts are not taking place in public. A list of public statements in which he referred to these issues can be found in the bibliography at the end of this paper.

B. - A WORKING POLITICIAN'S APPROACH

1. A blend of idealism and realism

Kreisky often speaks of himself as a "working politician".

His approach to these problems is based as much on his personal political convictions as on the reality of the international situation.

Or, as he has formulated it himself

"We must approach these problems with that blend of idealism and realism without which the great tasks before us can never really be accomplished." (UNIDO Ill., New Delhi, 31 January 1980)

Krelsky has repeatedly stated that there are

"realities with which we are confronted and which will have to be taken into account" (UNGA, New York, 29 October 1979)

"Glossing over events [...] would be the worst possible method". (UNIDO Ill., New Delhi, 31 January 1980)

"The experience of a lifetime has taught me not to harbour illusions." (UNGA, New York, 11 November 1974)

2. The importance of north-south cooperation

"The economically developed countries have a duty to render the countries of the Third World decisive assistance [...]" (UNIDO Ill., New Delhi, 31 January 1980)

"I believe that the North-South dialogue will be successful only if some or all of the modern industrialized countries that are members of OECD are able to decide to join a large-scale economic solidarity programme with the developing countries of other continents. I have said this at different times on the international scene and on many occasions. (UN Symposium, Vienna, 7 March 1978)

Kreisky, who has been representing Austria in the international arena for more than twenty-five years, holds the conviction - inspite of the geopolitical situation of Austria in the East-West context - that

"co-operation between developing and industrialized countries is of just as fundamental significance as peace and coexistence between differing social systems" (UNIDO Ill., New Delhi, 31 January 1980)

"It is indeed shocking how little constructive achievement there has been accomplished so far." (Dallas, 18 October 1965)

The North-South dialogue

"concerns us in Europe as much as it does those who come from other continents." (UNGA, New York, 29 October 1979)

"economic cooperation on the basis of the transfer of values is in the long run not only an act of international charity or an act of international solidarity but an act of economic reason" (Caux, 8 January 1966)

"Whatever happens, we must not cease economic assistance. The consequences would be disastrous for the developing countries in the first place and for us - soon after that." (Dallas, 18 October 1965)

3. The need for an active role of the north

In 1965, a year after the first UNCTAD conference, Kreisky drew the lessons from that conference in his speech to the Dallas Council on World Affairs

"Not only a strategy was lacking. There was no convincing tactical approach either"

and insisted that the industrialized countries should have played an active role on that occasion:

They should have offered

"to establish as promptly as possible a realistic global program of purposeful and co-ordinated action within the framework of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.

"Our proposal should have been entitled: 'Toward the Great Co-operation with the Third World'.

"I am firmly convinced that had we at the time of the World Trade Conference in Geneva been prepared to make such a move [...] (we would) [...] have had a tangible program of political action at our disposal."

Without a positive approach and such a meaningful program, Kreisky continued his analysis,

"we gave our consent [...] (to holding the conference only) after [...] protracted hemming and hawing"

"at the conference itself, to which we came without a plan or program, we had to labor wearily in order to counter attacks launched against us by developing countries;"

"and now we are engaged in a stalemated war for stands and resolutions." (Dallas, 18 October 1965)

4. First and foremost a political task

Despite the dominant view that development and North-South cooperation are essentially economic issues they constitute - in Kreisky's view -

"primarily a political task" (Dallas, 18 October 1965)

"There can be no doubt that economic issues cannot be considered independently of fundamental political views. They meet with approval to the extent to which they are in line with the respective political philosophy of the countries concerned." (UNGA, New York, 29 October 1979)

"The world political situation is the basis for our political action" (UNIDO Ill., New Delhi, 31 January 1980)

The world political situation is, however, - in his view - not as uniform as one is often made to believe:

"We are faced not only with areas of tension in the world but also with a variety of social systems: for example, not all governments among the western democracies hold the same political views and ideas, just as not all communist states are joining the same military alliances. Just as there are divergencies between the social systems on points of principle and on practical issues amongst the industrialised countries, new economic forms are developing in the countries of the Third World." (UNIDO Ill., New Delhi, 31 January 1980)

Similarly,

"it would be an oversimplification to believe that (the North-South dialogue) is simply one of a confrontation between the industrialized States and the developing countries. The industrialized nations also have differing positions in this dialogue depending upon the political philosophies of their Governments [...] It may well be that on this issue the industrialized States give too strong an impression of having a firm, unified position on this entire complex of issues; but we too see the problems in very different ways, depending on our political perspectives." (UNGA, New York, 29 October 1979)

5. The need for a realistic economic basis for action

Major international actions will be possible only in so far as they

"spring from specific economic conditions inherent in contemporary industrial society." (Dallas, 18 October 1965)

Whatever changes have taken place over the last years it is still a

"fact that modern industrialized states possess a staggering economic potential" (Dallas, 18 October 1965)

"On the other hand, the reality of the international situation with which we are confronted will have to be taken into account. Economic thinking can only rarely be influenced by considerations of international solidarity. This conclusion may not be to the liking of many of us, and it certainly is not to mine, but this is how the world is today." (UNGA, New York, 29 October 1979)

"I myself by no means underestimate the work of international charity. Development aid was initially an act of international charity for some, and an act of international solidarity for others. However, I must confess that I have come to the conclusion that somewhere and somehow these valuable humanitarian efforts reach a limit defined by hard material circumstances.

"I now believe that - with due appreciation for the humanitarian nature of this international charity or international solidarity - at the present time we must strive towards a solution based on hard economic facts." (CESI/VID Symposium, Vienna, 23 October 1978)

"The most urgent task consists in overcoming their gigantic unemployment and their state of permanent famine. This can be neither an act of pure charity nor one of strictly commercial profit-oriented nature [...]" (International Rescue Committee, Freedom Award, 14 April 1975)

"I believe that development co-operation will be successful in the long run only if we give it a realistic economic basis which it must ultimately have in order to be relevant. For it is not conceivable that there should be economic advantage on one side and purely moral obligations on the other. However much we are aware of the moral responsibility of the rich countries to fight hunger and poverty in the world, we must equally recognize that these efforts can be successful only if the economic significance of such efforts is understood. I know that these words are hard for idealists to accept," (UNIDO III., New Delhi, 31 January 1980)

but

"we know in what kind of a world we are living and in what economic system we have to act" (UN Symposium, Vienna, 7 March 1978)

"Again, the present world economic situation is characterised by difficulties in the field of energy, and here, understandably enough, differences of opinion arise between the oil producing and the oil consuming countries. Yet, I am convinced that these differences could be overcome by means of new forms of co-operation that take mutual interests into account." (UNIDO Ill., New Delhi, 31 January 1980)

6. A political initiative not a detailed blue-print

"I see myself more as a proponent of these ideas than one who has to put forward the scientific and economic groundwork." (CESI/VID Symposium, Vienna, 23 October 1978)

"I feel that it is not our task to supply a detailed blue-print for the realization of these ideas.

"The situation is very similar to that of most major political decisions: as soon as there is agreement on the principle the specialists do find answers to problems which have been considered unsolvable until that moment." (Parteitag, Vienna, 12 March 1976)

"[...] a historical example: before the realization of the European Economic Community, the politicians of the six countries that had determined to form the Economic Community were confronted with a multitude of problems, and it seemed as if the commentators would be right who thought that in view of this multitude of problems the European Economic Community was a project like many others, and which it would only be possible to realize very slowly. The Belgian Prime Minister Paul-Henri Spaak then said that initially there had to be the political decision to realize the economic community and the experts had to be set the task of doing everything to make possible this realization within the shortest possible time."

"I, too, think if we have the political will to realize these ideas, the experts will be successful in creating the necessary conditions within the briefest space of time. The question is thus when shall we see such political will or such unison of intent, particularly among the donor countries." (CESI/VID Symposium, Vienna, 23 October 1978)

7. Needed "a grand design"

"I feel that something is lacking in this (North-South) dialogue; namely, a 'grand design' based upon strong feeling of responsibility and international solidarity, from which everything else should flow." (UNGA, New York, 29 October 1979)

"My view is that global economic and political co-operation is only possible if the industrialized States are able, through large-scale, joint actions, to assist in building up the infrastructure of the developing States - and what we mean here is infrastructure in the broadest sense of the word, ranging from the building of a subcontinental railway system to the development of telecommunication.

"A new grand strategy is needed to promote economic development in those parts of the world that are still suffering from poverty, want and unemployment. If the economies of the Third World nations are to be placed on a sounder footing and if industrialisation is to be promoted, the prime requisite is the development of the infrastructure." (UNIDO Ill., New Delhi, 31 January 1980)

"It cannot be broken up into bilateral measures [...] I do not think that the desired results can be obtained by agreements of a partial nature, particularly if we seriously wish to bring about a new economic order in the world." (CESI/VID Symposium, Vienna, 23 October 1978)

8. North and south must work out solutions together

Kreisky is profoundly aware of differences in the cultural and political context as well as in views and priorities which will have to be taken into account in any serious effort to come to solutions.

"In Africa and Asia the alternatives are being built. We shall have to be liberal enough to understand that socialism in Asia will be Asian and in Africa African, as divergent or as close to this politico-economic phenomenon in Europe as there are similarities or differences between these cultural and political worlds." (Caux, 8 January 1966)

"The developing countries criticize development assistance. Their criticism is partly unjustified, but partly also very justified. They see things differently. They don't want us to export our political ideas together with our equipment and experts. They have different ideas about priorities." (Parliament, 2 December 1970)

"The basic problems are well known, and I should be the last to claim that I have universally valid solutions." (UNIDO III., New Delhi, 31 January 1980)

On the process of coming to mutually acceptable solutions in the North-South dialogue, Kreisky said, inter alia,

"In this forum, proposals on economic co-operation have repeatedly been made. There can be no doubt that economic issues cannot be considered independently of fundamental political views. They meet with approval to the extent to which they are in line with the respective political philosophy of the countries concerned. Certainly, many of these proposals appear attractive and - from the point of view of economically developing countries - are not only useful but also urgently needed.

"Recently my esteemed friend, the President of Mexico, Mr. Lopez Portillo, submitted specific proposals to this Assembly. Likewise, the President of Cuba, Mr. Fidel Castro, proposed a global development programme - a very expensive one, I believe. And we still recall the proposals on a New International Economic Order put forward by the late President of Algeria, Mr. Boumedienne."

"A few months ago a commission established outside this forum and composed of eminent persons from the South and the North headed by the former Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, Mr. Willy Brandt, concluded its work and submitted a series of very important and valuable proposals." (UNGA, New York, 29 October 1979)

"Consequently, with the view to approaching these problems in the most realistic manner one might try - as I suggested in my address to the 34th session of the General Assembly last fall - to arrive at a synthesis of all these plans and ideas, taking into account what has already been accomplished and also taking into account the various channels of transfer which have proven their effectiveness. Yet, it might indeed be reasonable to examine the various proposals in the perspective of the industrialization needs of the developing countries, seeking, at the same time, new and effective forms of co-operation." (UNIDO Ill., New Delhi, 31 January 1980)

"It will not be easy to bridge the gap between the various more or less ideologically motivated programmes." (UNGA, New York, 29 October 1979)

"I believe that certain compromises can be reached only - if at all - at a summit meeting." (Wiesbaden, 23 October 1974)

9. Living up to one's responsibility

"Responsible statesmen can have only one task, to do everything in their power calmly and firmly to serve the cause of peace and of continued and renewed detente." (UNIDO Ill., New Delhi, 31 January 1980)

In this endeavour he is motivated, inter alia, by the conviction that

"the democratic states will be successful only if they follow faithfully the precept of the United Nations Charter - 'to employ international machinery for the promotion of the economic and social advancement of all peoples'." (Dallas, 18 October 1965)

For many years Kreisky has been using every opportunity to put forward these thoughts. In reflecting about it publicly he said:

"Many believe that because they have so far not been put into practice I ought to stop. Political aims and ideas have never lost their justification because they could not be implemented immediately. Many of those here present know from their own experience how necessary it is in politics to raise the same questions again and again. Some day the time will come when the ideas will be put into effect. That is my hope!" (UNIDO III., New Delhi, 31 January 1980)

"I repeat once again why I consider this idea [...] why I consider these considerations to be so important. Because I believe that if we are not successful in bringing about these solutions, the unrest in the world will increase to an extent that we today can scarcely conceive, and we shall all be to blame for this." (CESI/VID Symposium, Vienna, 23 October 1978)

C. - KREISKY'S REFERENCES TO THE MARSHALL PLAN

In many of his speeches Kreisky pointed to the Marshall Plan as a predecessor of the large-scale economic solidarity programme he has in mind.

He has always stressed two aspects: firstly, that many lessons can be learned from the Marshall Plan, and secondly, that given the widely differing circumstances many aspects would have to be modified.

1. Lessons to be learned from the marshall plan

a) The only successful major international assistance programme

(There is) "one precedent in economic history, the Marshall Plan, which in fact was essentially a large scale aid programme offered by the people of the United States to the peoples of Europe; one that proved outstandingly effective in the economic recovery of the European countries which were in ruins after the Second World War." (UNIDO Ill., New Delhi, 31 January 1980)

"When the European economy lay in ruins after the Second World War, when we were standing practically on the edge of an economic abyss, the people of the United States decided to undertake a great, I would almost say a gigantic, programme, of assistance to the shattered economies of Europe. At that time vast resources were made available to us [...]" (UN Symposium, Vienna, 7 March 1978)

"Without Marshall Aid it would have been impossible to build up Austria's newly nationalized heavy industry in record time. The industrial plants had been completely destroyed, the factories were empty, and its was thanks above all to Marshall Aid that these factories could very quickly become some of the most modern factories in Austria." (CESI/VID Symposium, Vienna, 23 October 1978)

"I am firmly convinced that had we made good use of the lessons of the Marshall Plan - the only genuinely successful international endeavour of assistance and solidarity - we would have spared ourselves many a disappointment. We would have also greatly enhanced the effectiveness of our assistance to developing countries [...] we don't even have the excuse that we lacked experience." (Dallas, 18 October 1965)

"And that is the reason why I have again and again expressed the view that a similar plan is now needed, though one of a different type" (UNIDO Ill., New Delhi, 31 January 1980)

b) Counterpart funds: An outstanding technical device

"In the implementation of the Marshall Plan a method was developed [...] (namely) [...] the provision of assistance in the form of credits in a manner that would allow the proceeds to remain in the recipient country for reinvestment." (UNIDO Ill., New Delhi, 31 January 1980)

(These loans were) "repaid in national currency into special counterpart accounts, which were administered by each nation independently and were under the control of the national Governments, the only exception being that general agreements were made regarding the use of these funds [...] Therefore Austria paid back in Schilling for the goods that we obtained against dollars [...]" (UN Symposium, Vienna, 7 March 1978)

"counterpart funds generated by payments in the national currency of the recipient state for goods and services supplied would accumulate and would then be available to that state

"In Austria, for example, a large portion of these funds was invested in the reconstruction of the nationalized heavy industry. Naturally, these investment funds were also available on the same basis to the private sector of the economy." (UNIDO Ill., New Delhi, 31 January 1980)

"As a result of the recirculation of funds that went on year after year, the original aid was perpetuated and fed back into the economy again." (UNIDO Ill., New Delhi, 31 January 1980)

"Even today, these counterpart funds are being used in Austria to finance considerable state investments" (UNIDO Ill., New Delhi, 31 January 1980)

(which) "is one of the reasons the Austrian Federal Government has been able to pursue in recent years - and is still pursuing a successful investment policy." (UNGA, New York, 29 October 1979)

c) Multilateral concerted action essential

Referring to development assistance Kreisky stated in his Dallas speech:

"One major error was that of insufficient joint planning, the lack of multilateral concerted action.

"Part of the secret formula of the success of the Marshall Plan consisted precisely in its multilateral character, in its system of collective planning and programming [...] (another was) [...] that European countries were made to face, and to solve, a series of genuine problems - problems which originally appeared insoluble.

"Foremost among these were the liberalization of European trade and the convertibility of European currencies." (Dallas, 18 October 1965)

d) Drawing rights

"To deal with these two fundamental issues, an outstanding technical device was applied which never aroused in the European countries the feeling of having a leadership imposed upon them from without [...] the excellent, and yet so simple idea of 'drawing rights' which meant in substance that states members of the Organization for European Economic Co-operation acquired the right to buy from each other, with payments for these purchases forthcoming from the Marshall Plan. These drawing rights were maintained also for operations involving several countries, thereby assuring a degree of freedom of choice" (Dallas, 18 October 1965)

"it would have to be founded on the idea of the 'drawing rights' of that time in order to ensure the freedom of action of the receiving country. By this I do not mean 'currency drawing rights', I mean the drawing rights of the Marshall Plan, where a number of supplier countries were specified and where the receiving country was able to select from the supplier countries the country that it liked best. This ensured maximum freedom of movement, and the supplier countries all had to be countries which had suitable industrial facilities at the moment the contract was concluded and not merely with a view to the contract." (CESI/VID Symposium, Vienna, 23 October 1978)

e) The Marshall Plan initiated integration among the recipients

"By these means the Marshall Plan [...] (not only) [...] first rebuilt and restored European economic life and subsequently generated prerequisites for further growth, of dimensions hitherto unknown in the history of Europe"

but by the same token

"the Marshall Plan initiated European integration and inaugurated its first successful phase." (Dallas, 18 October 1965)

Among the lessons which Kreisky drew in his Dallas speech was that a realistic global programme should pursue a similar movement towards economic integration among the developing countries which the mechanisms of the Marshall Plan had brought about in Europe:

"We ought to make an attempt to further economic cooperation between the countries of Africa and Asia, cooperation of the kind engendered in its time by the Marshall Plan among the European states. We should enhance the economic integration of African and Asian states, facilitate for some developing countries the task of supplying others, by compensating their outlays with deliveries to them of our own goods. Comparatively advanced developing countries should become suppliers of assistance for purposes of development. As a rule, we do not take these attempts seriously, we tend to treat them as somewhat of a fraud! How wrong we are."

"Actually, we ought to seek out systematically areas wherein certain African countries could be of help to other countries of Africa and Asia - if for no other reason, because we know that their industrial goods are not likely to find outlets in our markets. This could therefore open the door for meaningful action in the field of foreign policy."

In summary he stated

"The significant partnership which would ensue from such policies ought to be directed toward enhancing the drive for integration in the so-called 'Third World', toward establishing within this world, through a system of drawing rights, a natural economic inter-relationship." (Dallas, 18 October 1965)

2. Modifications are absolutely necessary

When Kreisky addressed this subject he always indicated clearly that - while there were many lessons to be learned from the Marshall Plan for the large-scale economic solidarity programme which he was suggesting - it was essential to modify and adapt the methods to the different situation prevailing in the developing countries.

In his Dallas speech he said:

"Granted that there can be no question of mechanical application of these Marshall Plan methods in dealing with countries which lack an infrastructure or possess only a meager one. Nor are these methods applicable to countries with few or undeveloped material and manpower resources." (Dallas, 18 October 1965)

In his speech to the UN Symposium on State Petroleum Enterprises:

"I think that with suitable adaptation a similar policy would be appropriate today; I even go so far as to say that I could only imagine lasting success for the North-South dialogue, if we could make up our minds to carry out such a great programme." (UN Symposium, Vienna, 7 March 1978)

In his address to the UN General Assembly in 1979:

"Obviously, such a model cannot be applied without modification to a very different situation, but some of its underlying concepts are certainly still valid." (UNGA, New York, 29 October 1979)

In his address to UNIDO Ill.:

"I agree that the conditions prevailing today are quite different, but the basic idea could be the same, namely, that counterpart funds generated by payments in the national currency of the recipient state for goods and services supplied would accumulate and would then be available to that state for other economic purposes"

and

"a similar plan is now needed, though one of a different type that would be suited to the special relationships between the industrialised states and the developing countries. Willingness to adopt such a plan would be likely to usher in the first successful stage of the North-South-Dialogue." (UNIDO Ill., New Delhi, 31 January 1980)

D. - ON THE IMPORTANCE OF INFRASTRUCTURE

A major dimension of the Kreisky initiative

In all major speeches on his initiative for a large-scale economic solidarity programme with developing countries Bruno Kreisky stresses the importance of building and strengthening the infrastructure of developing countries.

He has elaborated this dimension in his address to the Third General Conference of UNIDO in New Delhi on 31 January 1980 both in summary:

"the economically developed countries have a duty to render the countries of the Third World decisive assistance in developing their infrastructure, because that is the only way in which they will be enabled to achieve their own economic goals and exploit their own wealth to the full. Also, that is the only way in which they will be increasingly able to gain equality as partners of the industrialized nations."

and in more detail:

"A new grand strategy is needed to promote economic development in those parts of the world that are still suffering from poverty, want and unemployment. If the economies of the Third World nations are to be placed on a sounder footing and if industrialisation is to be promoted, the prime requisite is the development of the infrastructure.

"Developing the infrastructure does not entail deviating from the path to industrialisation. Certainly, the industrialisation process seems to proceed more slowly in the initial stages than when development is concentrated on a few major industrial projects. However, the modernisation of an economy is less risky and has more lasting results when it is accomplished on the basis of a well developed infrastructure. A sound infrastructure has to reduce the costs of industrial production: its establishment and operation provide better service to broader groups of the population and lend considerable impetus to the economy.

"An example that comes to mind is the development of the railway system, especially in the more densely populated developing countries. In Europe, and to some extent in North America, the building of railways in many cases triggered off the development of a modern industrial economy. The advantages of a railway are that it entails relatively simple technology, that it saves energy, and that it facilitates the transportation of large quantities of goods over long distances and large numbers of passengers in industrial agglomerations.

"Railways are not obsolete even in modern industrial countries, as is shown by the world famous Tokaido line in Japan, or by new trains in rapid urban transit systems and in the long distance transport of cargo in Europe. In fact, all the industrialised countries are experiencing what can be termed a genuine 'Renaissance of Rail Traffic'.

"Adequate installations for water supply are just as important. In many countries irrigation is the sina qua non for increasing agricultural production. Moreover, hydrological projects are also frequently used for the generation of energy. The scarcity of oil and above all the fact that it has become a more precious commodity have greatly stimulated the development of alternative sources of energy. An adequate supply of energy at not too high a price is essential if growth targets are to be attained, particularly in the developing countries.

"The expansion of information and communication facilities must also be regarded as a decisive factor in the efforts to create a new and better international order. To take one example, the close relationship between telecommunications and a country's stage of development is demonstrated by the fact that in the poorer developing countries there is only one telephone per 1.000 inhabitants while there are 300 in the developed countries and as many as 750 in the United States per 1.000 inhabitants.

"Today, we are becoming increasingly convinced that economic prosperity requires above all the development of human resources. The development of industry in particular is not possible unless training is improved.

"Over and above that, however, the development of a modern infrastructure also creates employment, income and prosperity for a large number of people. The international community should therefore devote itself more than ever before to these great tasks and make a special effort to promote the establishment of infrastructural facilities in the developing countries.

"We fully appreciate the fact that infrastructural development on a large scale in developing countries calls for the expenditure of vast sums of money." (UNIDO Ill., New Delhi, 31 January 1980)

E. - A CONSTANT SEARCH FOR POSITIVE-SUM-GAME SCENARIOS

Kreisky's personal views have, inter alia, been influenced by the experience of his formative years through his deep involvement with the political and cultural movement of the Austrian working class searching to find and fighting for a just position in society, the experience of large-scale unemployment in Austria, the end of the First Austrian Republic, his experience of living in exile during the Second World War, his experience with the reconstruction of Austria and the role of the Marshall Plan in this context, as well as by the information gathered and insights gained during more than a quarter century in international politics and in innumerable contacts with personalities from the Third World. [3]

The principles derived from these experiences, especially the need for a much higher degree of international solidarity, the insight into the necessity that underprivileged social formations have to fight to improve their position, as well as the experience of the positive effects of a major international solidarity action led to the conviction of the need of a large-scale economic solidarity programme with the developing countries, the realization of which he has now been pushing for many years.

His interpretation of economic and social history told him, however, that an approach based only on needs (of the developing countries), on principles (of morale, justice, and international solidarity), and on gratitude (of those who have been recipients of international solidarity) would not be strong enough to make such a programme possible.

As a working politician, Kreisky has always been aware that - in the actual running of politics - the urgent is almost always accorded higher attention and therefore given greater weight than the really important.

As a consequence he has been constantly searching for politico-economic vehicles capable of creating additional motivation with political and economic decision-makers inducing them to accept the idea and carry out a large-scale solidarity programme.

In making concrete proposals he, therefore, tried to combine the 'needs and principles'-approach with suggestions for the solution of problems of an immediate and pressing character - existing at the given moment - and therefore more difficult to be shoved aside.

Or, expressed in the terminology of the discussion of the last few years, he has been searching for and suggesting positive-sum-game scenarios.

Among the immediate and pressing problems and/or opportunities which he chose to combine with his proposal of a large-scale economic solidarity programme to create such positive-sum-game scenarios were the following

1. Large and spatially concentrated increases in international liquidity
a) the dollar overhang
b) the high liquidity of the oil exporting surplus countries
2. Economic crises or depressions in industrialized countries
a) under-utilized productive capacities
b) growing unemployment

which were contained in the different combined proposals he has been making.

a) The 'Dollar Overhang'

One combined proposal related to the 'dollar overhang' existing in Europe after the immense increase in dollar liquidity in the years 1969 to 1971 and the breakdown of the established monetary mechanisms in 1971.

In the Declaration on Government Policy on the opening of the new session of Parliament in 1971 Kreisky stated that

"Not without apprehension we observe the developments in the international monetary situation [...] since it contains the immediate danger of prejudicing world trade and by the same token the foreign trade of each and every nation." (Regierungserklärung, Wien, 5 November 1971)

The proposal itself is documented in quotable form in a speech by the then Foreign Minister of Austria, Mr. Rudolf Kirchschläger, in the General Assembly of the United Nations:

"I would like to refer to the following considerations submitted by Austria at the last meeting of the World Bank in Washington:

"A number of important international capital movements - between the industrialized nations of Western Europe and North America - have resulted in the accumulation of considerable amounts of US dollars outside the United States.

"Careful consideration should be given to the possibility of using part of this 'overhang' of US dollars for low-cost development financing.

"My Government is considering to purchase US dollars from the Austrian National Bank - our central bank - in order to offer these dollars as loans to international organizations which are concerned with development financing, such as the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank. These loans would be made available at interest rates attractive for developing countries." (Kirchschläger, UNGA, New York, 5 October 1972)

In consequence, the Austrian Government implemented the idea within its own jurisdiction. The proposal did, however, not lead to international action.

b) Oil price increases and surpluses of investible liquidity

Another immediate politico-economic issue was introduced when the OPEC surpluses developed following the increases in the price of oil. Concerning the principles involved, Kreisky declared:

"Over the last year or so, the energy problem has assumed growing importance, and there are unceasing debates over the price of oil. As far as the basic problem is concerned, I should like to state here again what has been my view for years: for a very long time, the terms of trade have been very unfavourable to the oil-producing countries in the Middle East, as indeed to all raw material producers - a fact rightly criticized at the very first UNCTAD conference, which called for 'objective, international commodity arrangements' to 'secure remunerative, equitable, and stable prices for primary commodities, especially those exported by developing countries, in order to 'stimulate a dynamic and steady growth and ensure reasonable predictability in the real export earnings of developing countries.'

"Let me, therefore, emphasize that the oil-producing countries have a right to charge a reasonable price for their product. This, in fact, applies to all countries which produce raw materials." (UNGA, New York, 11 November 1974)

"Secondly, I should like to say that I do not agree with those who have in the past expressed the view that the price of oil was too high. Even though it does not and did not help our balance of payments, since we have to import most of our oil, I say quite frankly that I am of the opinion that there are sound reasons why, for the oil-producing countries, the price of this raw material - for many it is, after all, the only raw material or the most important one that they have - must definitely keep pace with price developments for the products that these countries have to buy. There seems to me to be a logical connexion between the two; so I have always refused, as has my Government, to draw any far-reaching conclusions from the increase in oil prices." (UN Symposium, Vienna, 7 March 1978)

Kreisky referred to the potential use of part of these surpluses - in addition to funds from the industrialized countries - for financing the large-scale economic solidarity programme, inter alia, in the following ways

"I believe, however, that new perspectives have emerged. Since producers of raw materials seem to be willing to relieve the difficulties of the countries that lack them, the most rational way out of the impasse would be a joint effort by these producer countries and the developed industrial nations. Arrangements could be worked out under which a raw material producing country and an industrial country would jointly finance supplies of the industrial nation's products to a Fourth World country. Such action would strongly stimulate development in the industrial field. The question is whether arrangements of this kind are feasible on a trilateral basis only, that is to say, a raw material producing country and an industrialized country joining to help a developing country lacking such resources. We believe that multilateral solutions may also be envisaged." (UNGA, New York, 11 November 1974)

"If an extended economic depression were to afflict the industrialized countries, there would be a sharp decline in the demand for energy caused by a falling off in the demand for goods. Thus, despite the determination of the oil-producing countries to cut production, the demand for oil would in the end be lower still. It is therefore in the oil-producing countries' own interest to help in finding solutions which would prevent a world crisis. There can be no crisis or long-term depression in any important part of the world without repercussions on other regions." (UNGA, New York, 11 November 1974)

"That such a course of action will open up a wide area of financial cooperation with the oil-producing nations and for economic exchange in general, may be a by-product for some, the main objective for others." (International Rescue Committee, Freedom Award, 14 April 1975)

"Although I am fully aware that such a plan should be financed mainly by the industrialized countries, I would also envisage financial participation on the part of those countries that are receiving large revenues from the sale of oil. Let me make it clear that this not only would mean financing, but also participation." (UNGA, New York, 29 October 1979)

c) Underutilized productive capacities

Kreisky's approach to under-utilized capacities can be summarized in his words in the following quotations:

"If we want to prevent that there will be unemployment due to overcapacities - which is, by the way, a misleading conceptualisation of a situation in which all too many are not in a position to buy the goods which they need - also we in Austria will have to be ready to make a portion of our production available to the new countries, even if this would not entail profitability in the ordinary sense of that word." (Europagespräch, Vienna, 23 June 1962)

"A striking example of these potentialities has been supplied by my own country. In 1955, ten years after the end of the war, we signed, after long negotiations, the Austrian State Treaty.

"In doing so we were obliged to deliver, in the six year period following the signature of the State Treaty, goods in the amount of US dollars 45.000.000 per year to the Soviet Union, without receiving any payment whatsoever.

"In spite of the weak economic position of my country in those years - Austria was far from belonging to the 'affluent society' - my country succeeded in fulfilling these obligations without incurring particular hardship. On the contrary, during the same period, Austria witnessed a steady economic growth unprecedented in our history." (Dallas, 18 October 1965)

"It is conceivable that in a period of decline in utilization of economic capacities, normal and traditional methods of deficit spending policy may be insufficient for stimulation of the economy, the more so as certain industries will be influenced by such methods - if at all - only in an indirect manner. In such a situation new opportunities for development assistance might arise.

"Since this phenomenon will probably be applicable to most European industrialized nations alike, it might be worthwhile to consider preparation of a concept as an initiative of the Government of Austria which, based on the experiences of the Marshall Plan, makes available to developing countries so-called drawing rights within the framework of an overall European plan - initially within the framework of OECD - which would permit developing countries to cover their requirements of essential commodities, notably capital goods, in those countries which take part in such a plan. The obligation to extend know-how would, of course, be part of it.

"We believe that in times of extreme prosperity little room will exist for such considerations. However, in periods, in which idle capacities exist, such considerations gain substantial economic importance. Thus, development assistance might very well be economically motivated as one among the anti-recessional policy instruments." (Regierungserklärung, 5 November 1971)

"The task for Austria is, therefore, a double one : To secure a high level of employment, since Austria is not rich enough to afford the luxury of mass unemployment. And secondly to be active - with steadiness and initiative - in all those fields in which solutions can be found by means of international cooperation." (Parliament, Vienna, 1 July 1975)

"Should a large-scale multinational action of the North come about, Austria will certainly shoulder the part which will be due to her on the basis of her national product and her economic strength." ("The World Economy in the Eighties", Vienna, 16 June 1980)

"To speak about North-South relations is to acknowledge the failure of the Western industrialized countries in development cooperation with the countries of the Third World.

"The industrialized countries will soon have to give their answer to the demands of the South if the deep division of this world is not to persist." (Economic Conference, Vienna, 10 June 1980)

Bibliography

The texts of the following addresses by Bruno Kreisky, in which he referred to different aspects of the problematique under discussion, have all recently been published in:

"Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I (827 p.) and Vol. II (915 p.), Österreichische Staatsdruckerei, Wien 1981

References in the paper to some of these addresses give the place and the date of the speech in parentheses.

Außerordentlicher Parteitag der Sozialistischen Partei Österreichs, Wien, 14. Mai 1958, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 53 - 56

"Demokratie und Diplomatie", Internationales Diplomaten-Seminar, Schloß Kleßheim, 4. - 17. August 1958, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 61 - 68

"Die europäische Wirtschaftszusammenarbeit und Österreich", Wien, 29. Mai 1959, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 78 - 94

"Weltpolitische Aspekte zur Frage der europäischen Integration", Europagespräch, Wien, 18. Juni 1959, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 94 - 98

"Zur Situation der österreichischen Außenpolitik", Internationales Diplomaten-Seminar, Schloß Kleßheim, 15. August 1959, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 98 - 103

Wiener Tagung der österreichischen Honorarkonsuln und Honorargeneralkonsuln, Wien, 11. März 1960, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 131 - 142

"Die österreichische Neutralität", Zürich, 4. Mai 1960, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 142 - 156

"Österreich, England und die europäische Integration", Alpbach, 30./31. August 1960, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 166 - 175

Generalversammlung der Vereinten Nationen, New York, 29. September 1960, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 180 - 184

"Einheit Europas für alle", Hamburg, 16. Juni 1961 (Auszug), in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 240 - 246

Weltkongreß der Weltföderalisten, Wien, 10. Juli 1961, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 258 -259

Beratende Versammlung des Europarates, Strassburg, 27. September 1961, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 267 - 272

"Muß sich Österreich an der Entwicklungshilfe beteiligen ?", Wien, 1. Dezember 1961, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 287 - 295

"Zum Budgetkapitel 'Äußeres'", Nationalrat, Wien, 5. Dezember 1961, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 295 - 301

"Integration zwischen West und Ost", Helsinki, 11. Dezember 1961, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 301 - 310

"Österreich in der Völkergemeinschaft", Universität Wien, 19. Jänner 1962, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 310 - 321

"Die Rolle Österreichs im Rahmen der Entwicklungshilfe Europas", Europagespräch, Wien, 23. Juni 1962

Konferenz für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Partnerschaft, Salzburg, 1. Juli 1962, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 359 - 362

"Bericht über den Stand der österreichischen Außenpolitik", Nationalrat, Wien, 19. Juli 1962, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 362 - 367

Generalversammlung der Vereinten Nationen, New York, 25. September 1962, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 374 - 379

"Neutralität und Neutralismus", Washington, 27. September 1962, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 385 - 390

"Die Aufgaben des demokratischen Sozialismus in unserer Zeit", Niederösterreichischer Landesparteitag der SPÖ, St. Pölten, 13. Juni 1963, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 409 - 421

Kongreß der Sozialistischen Jugendinternationale, Oslo, 20. August 1963, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 442 - 453

"What is happening in European Economy", U.S.A., September 1963, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 466 - 472

"Zum Budgetkapitel 'Äußeres'", Nationalrat, Wien, 10. Dezember 1963, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 488 - 496

"Die Fragen der Entwicklungshilfe und die Außenpolitik", 7. Internationales Diplomaten-Seminar, Schloß Kleßheim, 27. Juli 1964, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 519 - 527

Europäische Woche des Kampfs gegen den Hunger, Wien, 9. November 1964, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 552 - 553

"Die Aufgaben des demokratischen Sozialismus", Sozialistischer Frauentag, Wien, 16. Juni 1965, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 586 - 597

"Foreign Policy in the Affluent Society", Dallas Council on World Affairs, Dallas, 18. Oktober 1965, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 655 - 660

Jugendkonferenz der Stiftung für moralische Aufrüstung, Caux, Schweiz, 8. Jänner 1966, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. I., pp. 677 - 686

"Regierungserklärung" (Kabinett Kreisky I), Nationalrat, Wien, 27. April 1970, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. II., pp. 1 -23

"Zum Budgetkapitel 'Bundeskanzleramt'", Nationalrat, Wien, 2. Dezember 1970, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. ll., pp. 72 - 83

"Die sozialdemokratische Alternative", München, 14. Mai 1971, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. II., pp. 122 - 129

"Die Zukunft des Sozialismus", Autoren-Treffen des ECON-Verlages, Salzburg, 3. September 1971, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. II., pp. 144 - 153

"Regierungserklärung" (Kabinett Kreisky II), Nationalrat, Wien, 5. November 1971, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. ll., pp. 158 - 185

"Chairman's Address", Party Congress of the Socialist Party of Austria, Villach, 18. April 1972, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. II., pp. 192 - 220

"Betrachtungen eines Österreichers zur europäischen Integration", Alpbach, 3. September 1972, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. II., pp. 244 - 252

"Globale Koexistenz - Illusion oder reale Chance", Wiesbaden, 23. Oktober 1974, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. II., pp. 444 - 451

Address to the General Assembly of the United Nations, New York, 11. November 1974, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. ll., pp. 451 - 456

Address on the occasion of the Freedom Award of the International Rescue Committee, New York, 14. April 1975, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. II, pp. 460 - 464

"Bericht über die wirtschaftliche Lage", Nationalrat, Wien, 1. Juli 1975, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. ll., pp. 477 - 489

Konferenz für Sicherheit und Zusammenarbeit in Europa, Summit Meeting, Helsinki, 31. Juli 1975, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. II., pp. 490 - 493

"Ein Versuch keine Wahlrede zu halten", Dr. Karl-Renner-Institut, Wien, 1. September 1975, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. II., pp. 493 - 499

"Kurs auf die Achtziger Jahre", SPÖ-Parteitag, Wien, 12. März 1976, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. II., pp. 550 - 573

Parlamentarische Versammlung des Europarates, Strassbourg, 5. Mai 1976, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. II., pp. 583 - 589

Konferenz der Acción Democratica, Caracas, 23. Mai 1976, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. II., pp. 591 - 595

"Betrachtungen zur Zukunft der Entspannungspolitik in Europa", Hamburg, 23. November 1976, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. II., pp. 642 - 649

"Bereit für die Achtziger Jahre", Parteirat der Sozialistischen Partei Österreichs, Graz, 13. Oktober 1977, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. Il., pp. 684 - 696

United Nations Interregional Symposium on 'State Petroleum Enterprises in Developing Countries', Wien, 7. März 1978, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. ll., pp. 713 - 715

Rede des Vorsitzenden, 24. Parteitag der Sozialistischen Partei Österreichs, Wien, 19. Mai 1978, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. ll., pp. 730 - 746

World Development Information Day 1978, 'Colloquium on the Attitude of Trade Unions in the Developing Countries towards a New International Economic Order', UN CESI / Vienna Institute for Development, Wien, 23. Oktober 1978, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. II., pp. 763 - 766

"Regierungserklärung" (Kabinett Kreisky IV), Nationalrat, Wien, 19. Juni 1979, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. Il., pp. 795 - 820

"Verständigung, Friede, Zusammenarbeit", Generalversammlung der Vereinten Nationen, New York, 29. Oktober 1979, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. II., pp. 820 - 827

"Zur Lage der Sozialdemokratie in Europa", Parteitag der Sozialistischen Partei Österreichs, Wien, 16. November 1979, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. ll., pp. 828 - 840

Third General Conference of UNIDO, New Delhi, 31. Jänner 1980, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. II., pp. 852 - 857

"Internationale wirtschaftliche und politische Probleme der achtziger Jahre aus österreichischer Sicht", Volkswirtschaftliche Tagung der Österreichischen Nationalbank, Baden, 10. Juni 1980, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. ll., pp. 878 - 887

"Die Weltwirtschaft in den achtziger Jahren",

Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung und Dr. Karl Renner-Institut, Wien, 16. Juni 1980, in: "Kreisky - Reden", Vol. II., pp. 896 - 902

 

Notes

[1] Published as: Arne Haselbach »Bruno Kreisky's Drive for a Large-Scale Economic Solidarity Programme with Developing Countries«, Vienna Institute for Development, Occasional Paper 81/3, Vienna 1981 (A slightly enlarged version of a paper submitted to the Lysebu Symposium on 'Massive Transfers of Resources - Concepts and Realities" (Oslo, 1-4 March 1981) organized under the auspices of the European Association of Development Research and Training Institutes (EADI) by the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs and co-sponsored by The Center for Development Research, Copenhagen, The Chr. Michelsen Institute - DERAP, Bergen, and The Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation, Uppsala.)

[2] As reminder: The paper was written in 1981

[3] The Vienna Institute for Development was one of the frameworks, in which such contacts took place regularly. Its Board, presided over by Bruno Kreisky, included the following personalities:
AFRICA: Simeon 0. Adebo (Unitar; Nigeria), Bernard Chidzero (Zimbabwe), Marc C. Chona (Zambia), Joseph Mathiam (Senegal), Tom Mboya (Kenya), Moustapha Niasse (Senegal), O. O. Omololu (Nigeria), Doudou Thiam (Senegal)
ARAB REGION: Abdlatif Al-Hamad (Kuwait), Ahmed Ben Salah (Tunisia), Ibrahim Helmi Abdel-Rahman (UNIDO; Egypt), Ibrahim F. I. Shihata (OPEC Fund; Egypt)
ASIA: B. K. Nehru (India), B. R. Sen (FAO; India),
LATIN AMERICA: Archbishop Dom Helder Camara (Brazil), Fernando Henrique Cardoso (Brazil), Josué de Castro (Brazil), Felipe Herrera (IADB; Chile), Shridath S. Ramphal (Commonwealth; Guayana), Beatrice E. Rangel (Venezuela), Gabriel Valdes (Chile)
EUROPE/NORTH AMERICA: Willy Brandt (Germany), William D. Clark (IBRD; IIED; United Kingdom), Erhard Eppler (Germany), Kurt Grimm (Austria), Paul-Marc Henry (Club de Genève; France), Paul G. Hoffmann (UNDP; USA), Peter Jankowitsch (Austria), The Earl of Listowel (United Kingdom), Ernst Michanek (SIDA; Sweden), Alva Myrdal (Sweden), Walter P. Reuther (UAW; USA), Jean Rous (France), Roy Wilkins (NAACP; USA)..